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 Research Methodology

The Hand Society supports ongoing clinical research and is working to provide members with more clinical resources. Below is a list of articles related to clinical research methodology, which provide explanations regarding various research methods.

Learn more about ASSH Clinical Research Grants

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Steinhart, A. H., K. O'Rourke, et al. (1992). "Application of a stopping rule based on total treatment failures: the postoperative Crohn's disease trial." J Clin Epidemiol 45(5): 495-504.

Donaldson, S. and J. G. Wright (2001). "Case-control studies and randomized clinical trials in evidence-based orthopaedics." J Bone Joint Surg Am 83-A(8): 1278-9.

Detsky, A. S. and I. G. Naglie (1990). "A clinician's guide to cost-effectiveness analysis." Ann Intern Med 113(2): 147-54.

Redelmeier, D. A. and A. S. Detsky (1995). "A clinician's guide to utility measurement." Prim Care 22(2): 271-80.

Wright, J. G. and A. R. Feinstein (1992). "A comparative contrast of clinimetric and psychometric methods for constructing indexes and rating scales." J Clin Epidemiol 45(11): 1201-18.

Ioannidis, J. P., A. B. Haidich, et al. (2001). "Comparison of evidence of treatment effects in randomized and nonrandomized studies." Jama 286(7): 821-30.

Carney, P. A., D. W. Nierenberg, et al. (2004). "Educational epidemiology: applying population-based design and analytic approaches to study medical education." Jama 292(9): 1044-50.

Juni, P., A. Witschi, et al. (1999). "The hazards of scoring the quality of clinical trials for meta-analysis." Jama 282(11): 1054-60.

Altman, D. G., S. N. Goodman, et al. (2002). "How statistical expertise is used in medical research." Jama 287(21): 2817-20.

King, M., I. Nazareth, et al. (2005). "Impact of participant and physician intervention preferences on randomized trials: a systematic review." Jama 293(9): 1089-99.

Freiman, J. A., T. C. Chalmers, et al. (1978). "The importance of beta, the type II error and sample size in the design and interpretation of the randomized control trial. Survey of 71 "negative" trials." N Engl J Med 299(13): 690-4.

Begg, C., M. Cho, et al. (1996). "Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. The CONSORT statement." Jama 276(8): 637-9.

Gotzsche, P. C. (2006). "Lessons from and cautions about noninferiority and equivalence randomized trials." Jama 295(10): 1172-4.

Stroup, D. F., J. A. Berlin, et al. (2000). "Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group." Jama 283(15): 2008-12.

Jadad, A. R., D. J. Cook, et al. (1998). "Methodology and reports of systematic reviews and meta-analyses: a comparison of Cochrane reviews with articles published in paper-based journals." Jama 280(3): 278-80.

Wright, J. G. (1999). "Outcomes research: what to measure." World J Surg 23(12): 1224-6.
Devereaux, P. J., B. J. Manns, et al. (2001). "Physician interpretations and textbook definitions of blinding terminology in randomized controlled trials." Jama 285(15): 2000-3.

Detsky, A. S., G. Naglie, et al. (1997). "Primer on medical decision analysis: Part 1--Getting started." Med Decis Making 17(2): 123-5.

Detsky, A. S., G. Naglie, et al. (1997). "Primer on medical decision analysis: Part 2--Building a tree." Med Decis Making 17(2): 126-35.

Naglie, G., M. D. Krahn, et al. (1997). "Primer on medical decision analysis: Part 3--Estimating probabilities and utilities." Med Decis Making 17(2): 136-41.

Krahn, M. D., G. Naglie, et al. (1997). "Primer on medical decision analysis: Part 4--Analyzing the model and interpreting the results." Med Decis Making 17(2): 142-51.

Naimark, D., M. D. Krahn, et al. (1997). "Primer on medical decision analysis: Part 5--Working with Markov processes." Med Decis Making 17(2): 152-9.

Bhandari, M., R. R. Richards, et al. (2002). "The quality of reporting of randomized trials in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery from 1988 through 2000." J Bone Joint Surg Am 84-A(3): 388-96.

McLeod, R. S., J. G. Wright, et al. (1996). "Randomized controlled trials in surgery: Issues and problems." Surgery 119(5): 483-6.

Laupacis, A., C. H. Rorabeck, et al. (1989). "Randomized trials in orthopaedics: why, how, and when?" J Bone Joint Surg Am 71(4): 535-43.

McLeod, R. (2006). "Randomized, controlled trials: is there a role for them in surgery?" Ann Surg 244(5): 684-5.

Koran, L. M. (1975). "The reliability of clinical methods, data and judgments (first of two parts)." N Engl J Med 293(13): 642-6.

Koran, L. M. (1975). "The reliability of clinical methods, data and judgments (second of two parts)." N Engl J Med 293(14): 695-701.

Young, M. J., E. A. Bresnitz, et al. (1983). "Sample size nomograms for interpreting negative clinical studies." Ann Intern Med 99(2): 248-51.

Donner, A. and M. Eliasziw (1987). "Sample size requirements for reliability studies." Stat Med 6(4): 441-8.

McLeod, R. S., D. W. Taylor, et al. (1986). "Single-patient randomised clinical trial. Use in determining optimum treatment for patient with inflammation of Kock continent ileostomy reservoir." Lancet 1(8483): 726-8.

Oxman, A. D., D. L. Sackett, et al. (1993). "Users' guides to the medical literature. I. How to get started. The Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 270(17): 2093-5.

Guyatt, G. H., D. L. Sackett, et al. (1993). "Users' guides to the medical literature. II. How to use an article about therapy or prevention. A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 270(21): 2598-601.

Guyatt, G. H., D. L. Sackett, et al. (1994). "Users' guides to the medical literature. II. How to use an article about therapy or prevention. B. What were the results and will they help me in caring for my patients? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 271(1): 59-63.

Jaeschke, R., G. Guyatt, et al. (1994). "Users' guides to the medical literature. III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 271(5): 389-91.

Jaeschke, R., G. H. Guyatt, et al. (1994). "Users' guides to the medical literature. III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. B. What are the results and will they help me in caring for my patients? The Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 271(9): 703-7.

Levine, M., S. Walter, et al. (1994). "Users' guides to the medical literature. IV. How to use an article about harm. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 271(20): 1615-9.

Laupacis, A., G. Wells, et al. (1994). "Users' guides to the medical literature. V. How to use an article about prognosis. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 272(3): 234-7.

Oxman, A. D., D. J. Cook, et al. (1994). "Users' guides to the medical literature. VI. How to use an overview. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 272(17): 1367-71.

Richardson, W. S. and A. S. Detsky (1995). "Users' guides to the medical literature. VII. How to use a clinical decision analysis. A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 273(16): 1292-5.

Richardson, W. S. and A. S. Detsky (1995). "Users' guides to the medical literature. VII. How to use a clinical decision analysis. B. What are the results and will they help me in caring for my patients? Evidence Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 273(20): 1610-3.

Guyatt, G. H., C. D. Naylor, et al. (1997). "Users' guides to the medical literature. XII. How to use articles about health-related quality of life. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 277(15): 1232-7.

Richardson, W. S., M. C. Wilson, et al. (1999). "Users' guides to the medical literature: XV. How to use an article about disease probability for differential diagnosis. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 281(13): 1214-9.

Hunt, D. L., R. Jaeschke, et al. (2000). "Users' guides to the medical literature: XXI. Using electronic health information resources in evidence-based practice. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 283(14): 1875-9.

McGinn, T. G., G. H. Guyatt, et al. (2000). "Users' guides to the medical literature: XXII: how to use articles about clinical decision rules. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 284(1): 79-84.

Giacomini, M. K. and D. J. Cook (2000). "Users' guides to the medical literature: XXIII. Qualitative research in health care A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group." Jama 284(3): 357-62.